Goddard Data Sets


Volunteer Observing Ships (VOS)

Collocated VOS observations (speed and direction) used in the GEOS-1 analyses and QuikSCAT winds are quality controlled, and all observations within the spatial and temporal collocation criteria and pass the quality control are averaged. Quality control involves (1) gross comparison to GEOS DAS wind fields, (2) comparison to variational analysis. Wind speeds are height adjusted to a ten meter reference height. Rather than converting the ship observations to equivalent neutral winds, they are height adjusted assuming a 19.5 m reference height, neutral atmospheric stratification, and a roughness length of 0.152 mm. The ambiguity used in the comparison is the closest ambiguity rather than the selected ambiguity.


Buoys used in the GEOS-1 analyses are processed in the same manner as the VOS observations, except that the reference height is assumed to be 5 m.


25 km resolution SSM/I winds are bilinearly interpolated to NSCAT observation locations.


NCEP winds (2x2.5°) are bilineraly interpolated to NSCAT observation locations.


GEOS-1 winds are bilineraly interpolated, from a 2.0° latitude by 2.5° longitue grid, to NSCAT observation locations.

ERS-2 Scatterometer Winds

Collocated winds with the closest ambiguities (ERS-2 and QuikSCAT) to the validation data set. A variational analysis method (VAM) was used to quality check the data as follows:
1) gross outliers eliminated using GEOS analysis.
2) variational analysis of data performed using GEOS analysis (as background) with weak constraints.
3) QC performed relative to the new analysis with tighter constraints.



Steve Bloom

Joe Terry

Joe Ardizzone


Atlas, R., S. C. Bloom, R. N. Hoffman, E. Brin, J. Ardizzone, J. Terry, D. Bungato, and J. C. Jusem, 1998: Geophysical validation of NSCAT winds using atmospheric data and analyses. J. Geophys. Res., NSCAT special issue.