Ahlberg, C. M., Allwardt, K., Broocks, A., Bruno, K., McPhillips, L., Taylor, A., et al. (2018). Test duration for water intake, ADG, and DMI in beef cattle.
J Anim Sci, 96(8), 3043–3054.
Abstract: Water is an essential nutrient, but the effect it has on performance generally receives little attention. There are few systems and guidelines for collection of water intake (WI) phenotypes in beef cattle, which makes large-scale research on WI a challenge. The Beef Improvement Federation has established guidelines for feed intake (FI) and ADG tests, but no guidelines exist for WI. The goal of this study was to determine the test duration necessary for collection of accurate WI phenotypes. To facilitate this goal, individual daily WI and FI records were collected on 578 crossbred steers for a total of 70 d using an Insentec system at the Oklahoma State University Willard Sparks Beef Research Unit. Steers were fed in five groups and were individually weighed every 14 d. Within each group, steers were blocked by BW (low and high) and randomly assigned to one of four pens containing approximately 30 steers per pen. Each pen provided 103.0 m2 of shade and included an Insentec system containing six feed bunks and one water bunk. Steers were fed a constant diet across groups and DMI was calculated using the average of weekly percent DM within group. Average FI and WI for each animal were computed for increasingly large test durations (7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 63, and 70 d), and ADG was calculated using a regression formed from BW taken every 14 d (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, and 70 d). Intervals for all traits were computed starting from both the beginning (day 0) and the end of the testing period (day 70). Pearson and Spearman correlations were computed for phenotypes from each shortened test period and for the full 70-d test. Minimum test duration was determined when the Pearson correlations were greater than 0.95 for each trait. Our results indicated that minimum test duration for WI, DMI, and ADG were 35, 42, and 70 d, respectively. No comparable studies exist for WI; however, our results for FI and ADG are consistent with those in the literature. Although further testing in other populations of cattle and areas of the country should take place, our results suggest that WI phenotypes can be collected concurrently with DMI, without extending test duration, even if following procedures for decoupled intake and gain tests.
Ali, M., Singh, N., Kumar, M., Zheng, Y., Bourassa, M., Kishtawal, C., et al. (2018). Dominant Modes of Upper Ocean Heat Content in the North Indian Ocean.
Climate, 6(3), 71.
Abstract: The thermal energy needed for the development of hurricanes and monsoons as well as any prolonged marine weather event comes from layers in the upper oceans, not just from the thin layer represented by sea surface temperature alone. Ocean layers have different modes of thermal energy variability because of the different time scales of ocean–atmosphere interaction. Although many previous studies have focused on the influence of upper ocean heat content (OHC) on tropical cyclones and monsoons, no study thus far—particularly in the North Indian Ocean (NIO)—has specifically concluded the types of dominant modes in different layers of the ocean. In this study, we examined the dominant modes of variability of OHC of seven layers in the NIO during 1998–2014. We conclude that the thermal variability in the top 50 m of the ocean had statistically significant semiannual and annual modes of variability, while the deeper layers had the annual mode alone. Time series of OHC for the top four layers were analyzed separately for the NIO, Arabian Sea, and Bay of Bengal. For the surface to 50 m layer, the lowest and the highest values of OHC were present in January and May every year, respectively, which was mainly caused by the solar radiation cycle.
Ansong, J. K., Arbic, B. K., Simmons, H. L., Alford, M. H., Buijsman, M. C., Timko, P. G., et al. (2018). Geographical Distribution of Diurnal and Semidiurnal Parametric Subharmonic Instability in a Global Ocean Circulation Model.
J. Phys. Oceanogr., 48(6), 1409–1431.
Abstract: The evidence for, baroclinic energetics of, and geographic distribution of parametric subharmonic instability (PSI) arising from both diurnal and semidiurnal tides in a global ocean general circulation model is investigated using 1/12.5° and 1/25° simulations that are forced by both atmospheric analysis fields and the astronomical tidal potential. The paper examines whether PSI occurs in the model, and whether it accounts for a significant fraction of the tidal baroclinic energy loss. Using energy transfer calculations and bispectral analyses, evidence is found for PSI around the critical latitudes of the tides. The intensity of both diurnal and semidiurnal PSI in the simulations is greatest in the upper ocean, consistent with previous results from idealized simulations, and quickly drops off about 5° from the critical latitudes. The sign of energy transfer depends on location; the transfer is positive (from the tides to subharmonic waves) in some locations and negative in others. The net globally integrated energy transfer is positive in all simulations and is 0.5%–10% of the amount of energy required to close the baroclinic energy budget in the model. The net amount of energy transfer is about an order of magnitude larger in the 1/25° semidiurnal simulation than the 1/12.5° one, implying the dependence of the rate of energy transfer on model resolution.
Bourassa, M. A., and P.J. Hughes. (2018). Surface Heat Fluxes and Wind Remote Sensing. (pp. 245–270).
Abstract: The exchange of heat and momentum through the air-sea surface are critical aspects of ocean forcing and ocean modeling. Over most of the global oceans, there are few in situ observations that can be used to estimate these fluxes. This chapter provides background on the calculation and application of air-sea fluxes, as well as the use of remote sensing to calculate these fluxes. Wind variability makes a large contribution to variability in surface fluxes, and the remote sensing of winds is relatively mature compared to the air sea differences in temperature and humidity, which are the other key variables. Therefore, the remote sensing of wind is presented in greater detail. These details enable the reader to understand how the improper use of satellite winds can result in regional and seasonal biases in fluxes, and how to calculate fluxes in a manner that removes these biases. Examples are given of high-resolution applications of fluxes, which are used to indicate the strengths and weakness of satellite-based calculations of ocean surface fluxes.
Danielle Groenen. (2018). The Effects of Climate Change on the Pests and Diseases of Coffee Crops in Mesoamerica.
Journal of Climatology & Weather Forecasting, 6(3).
Abstract: Coffee is an in-demand commodity that is being threatened by climate change. Increasing temperatures and rainfall variability are predicted in the region of Mexico and Central America (Mesoamerica). This region is plagued with pests and diseases that have already caused millions of dollars in damages and losses to the coffee industry.This paper examines three pests that negatively affect coffee plants: the coffee borer beetle, the black twig borer,and nematodes. In addition, this paper examines three diseases that can destroy coffee crops: bacterial blight,coffee berry disease, and coffee leaf rust. This paper will review the literature on how these pests and diseases are predicted to affect coffee crops under climate change models. In general, increased temperatures will increase the spread of pest and disease in coffee crops. Projected decreased rainfall in Honduras and Nicaragua may decrease the spread of pest and disease. However, these are complex issues which still require further study.
Deng, J., Wu, Z., Zhang, M., Huang, N. E., Wang, S., & Qiao, F. (2018). Using Holo-Hilbert spectral analysis to quantify the modulation of Dansgaard-Oeschger events by obliquity.
Quaternary Science Reviews, 192, 282–299.
Abstract: Astronomical forcing (obliquity and precession) has been thought to modulate Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events, yet the detailed quantification of such modulations has not been examined. In this study, we apply the novel Holo-Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HHSA) to five polar ice core records, quantifying astronomical forcing's time-varying amplitude modulation of DO events and identifying the preferred obliquity phases for large amplitude modulations. The unique advantages of HHSA over the widely used windowed Fourier spectral analysis for quantifying astronomical forcing's nonlinear modulations of DO events is first demonstrated with a synthetic data that closely resembles DO events recorded in Greenland ice cores (NGRIP, GRIP, and GISP2 cores on GICC05 modelext timescale). The analysis of paleoclimatic proxies show that statistically significantly more frequent DO events, with larger amplitude modulation in the Greenland region, tend to occur in the decreasing phase of obliquity, especially from its mean value to its minimum value. In the eastern Antarctic, although statistically significantly more DO events tend to occur in the decreasing obliquity phase in general, the preferred phase of obliquity for large amplitude modulation on DO events is a segment of the increasing phase near the maximum obliquity, implying that the physical mechanisms of DO events may be different for the two polar regions. Additionally, by using cross-spectrum and magnitude-squared analyses, Greenland DO mode at a timescale of about 1400 years leads the Antarctic DO mode at the same timescale by about 1000 years. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fang, Y., Ceola, S., Paik, K., McGrath, G., Rao, P. S. C., Montanari, A., et al. (2018). Globally Universal Fractal Pattern of Human Settlements in River Networks.
Earth's Future, 6(8), 1134–1145.
Abstract: River networks play a key role in the spatial organization of human settlements. Both river networks and human settlements have been found to exhibit regular self-similar patterns, but little is known about the generalized spatial patterns of human settlements embedded within river networks. Here based on night light data, we find a universal fractal structure at the global scale, with both robust Hortonian scaling relationships with the extent of human settlements and statistically significant power law scaling of the power spectra of human area functions. Globally, we find consistent patterns of power law preferential downstream clustering of human settlements across all six populated continents, typically up to 40% of the maximum flow length. This downstream clustering suggests an optimum distribution of humans in large river basins for trade, transport, and natural resource utilization but with attendant implications for human impacts on rivers. Recognition of such spatial patterns helps generalize assessments of human impacts on rivers, with direct implications for management of water quality and biological diversity in river networks.
Gary Lagerloef, D. C., Hsun-Ying Kao. (2018). Verifying Aquarius Radiometer Calibration Drift Using In Situ Data.
Earth and Space Research, , 139–142.
Abstract: The Aquarius satellite mission was developed tomeasure the ocean’s sea surface salinity (SSS) field and toinvestigate the links between changes in the global water cycle,ocean circulation and climate variability. The mission ended inJune 2015 because of a power supply malfunction on the satellite.A recent data re-calibration and re-processing as producedAquarius data version V5.0, released in December 2017. KeyAquarius science objectives were to (1) map the mean SSS field,(2) measure the annual SSS cycle, and (3) document interannual variations, within a three-year minimum duration. This studyaddresses objectives (2) and (3) by using co-locatedin situdata toverify that there is no significant spurious radiometer calibrationdrift on these time scales. The analysis converts thein situsalinity and temperature data (primarily from Argo floats) to anexpected radiometer brightness temperature (TB), and computesthe differences of these from the Aquarius radiometer-derivedTB. The crux of the analysis is separating the sensor drift fromthe varying environmental corrections in the retrieval algorithm.The approach is to aggregate these co-located Tb differenceswithin geographical zones (for example northern and southernhemispheres, ascending and descending passes), and thencomparing the differences between these zones (double-difference). Next, regression analyses isolate the sensorvariations from the environmental ones. The key assumption isthat the long term (seasonal to interannual) radiometercalibration drift is a common signal among the various zones.This report explains this calculation and presents the resultsachieved with Aquarius V5.0 ocean salinity data release.Calibration histories for each of the six Aquarius radiometerchannels are derived. The residuals are attributed toenvironmental model errors within each zone. Understandingthese remains more problematic. The future study will be toadapt the technique to SMAP, and eventually SMOSmeasurements to enable a systematic cross-calibration of thedifferent satellite systems and obtain a reliable combined multi-year time series for studying ocean trends.
Gawlik, M. (2018). Instructional leadership and the charter school principal.
School Leadership & Management, 38(5), 539–565.
Abstract: Few studies have investigated what occurs inside charter schools with respect to instructional leadership, teaching, and learning. To address this gap in the literature, this case study examines two major issues: how the principals at four charter schools enact instructional leadership in their respective schools, and what barriers the principals encounter when enacting instructional leadership at their school sites. The results highlight three main categories of instructional leadership practices: developing a school mission, managing curriculum and instruction, and promoting school climate and culture. In addition, the data reveal that while the principals attempted to engage in instructional leadership, they encountered barriers related to budgeting and staffing. The paper broadens the scholarly understanding of instructional leadership in schools with high levels of autonomy.
Hahus, I., Migliaccio, K., Douglas-Mankin, K., Klarenberg, G., & Munoz-Carpena, R. (2018). Using Cluster Analysis to Compartmentalize a Large Managed Wetland Based on Physical, Biological, and Climatic Geospatial Attributes.
Environ Manage, 62(3), 571–583.
Abstract: Hierarchical and partitional cluster analyses were used to compartmentalize Water Conservation Area 1, a managed wetland within the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in southeast Florida, USA, based on physical, biological, and climatic geospatial attributes. Single, complete, average, and Ward's linkages were tested during the hierarchical cluster analyses, with average linkage providing the best results. In general, the partitional method, partitioning around medoids, found clusters that were more evenly sized and more spatially aggregated than those resulting from the hierarchical analyses. However, hierarchical analysis appeared to be better suited to identify outlier regions that were significantly different from other areas. The clusters identified by geospatial attributes were similar to clusters developed for the interior marsh in a separate study using water quality attributes, suggesting that similar factors have influenced variations in both the set of physical, biological, and climatic attributes selected in this study and water quality parameters. However, geospatial data allowed further subdivision of several interior marsh clusters identified from the water quality data, potentially indicating zones with important differences in function. Identification of these zones can be useful to managers and modelers by informing the distribution of monitoring equipment and personnel as well as delineating regions that may respond similarly to future changes in management or climate.