Modern data (1900–present) include observations and reanalysis data. The observations, which are available in hourly, daily, and monthly form, include surface station observations such as temperature, precipitation, and wind speed as well as marine station observations such as SST, relative sea level, and wind speed. The reanalysis data includes the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), which contains gridded atmospheric variables (e.g., geopotential height, virtual temperature) at different heights in the atmosphere (e.g., 925 mb, 850 mb) at a 32-km resolution across North America.

Stratigraphy of an excavation unit at Turtle Mound