Research Vessel Surface Meteorology Data Center


netCDF Code Manual for Quality Controlled
Surface Meteorological Data







Shawn R. Smith and David Legler



Research Vessel Surface Meteorological Data Center (RVSMDC)

World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE)

Surface Meteorological Data Assembly Center (DAC)

Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies

Florida State University




19 November 1997

Updated: 28 September 2001


Report WOCEMET 95-4
Version 3.0




1. Introduction

The WOCE network Common Data Format (netCDF) code manual for quality controlled (QC) surface meteorological data outlines the codes used within the DAC surface meteorological data sets released to the WOCE community. The code is a synthesis of the COADS documentation (Slutz et al. 1985), standard World Meteorological Organization (WMO) synoptic code, and new codes derived at Florida State University (FSU). In many places numeric codes were used to keep the data set compact.

NetCDF was chosen to take advantage of its portability and capability to include both the data and metadata (information about the data) in a single file. Complete details regarding netCDF can be found in Appendix 1.

The WOCE netCDF data file includes up to 31 possible parameters. In some cases, multiple measurements of the same parameter are available (e.g. sea temperature measured from a thermosalinograph and a bucket temperature) and are differentiated using sequentially numbered variable names (TS, TS2, TS3, TS4, etc.). As described in section 2, variables include not only meteorological data (temperature, pressure, etc.), but also a number of supporting variables (time of observation, platform position, movement, and flag discription, etc.). A variable containing quality control (QC) flags is included to indicate the QC applied to the data values. Multiple variable attributes provide information on data units, instruments used, instrument height, etc. in an attempt to provide an even mix between raw data and metadata. Thirteen global attributes contain general information for all data within the netCDF file. An example of a WOCE netCDF file is found in Appendix 2.

Most of the data that arrive at the Surface Meteorology DAC are converted to netCDF. The only change to the data is a simple conversion to a standard set of units. The original units are noted in a variable attribute. Any data arriving without an accurate time stamp or information on whether the time is local or UTC were discarded only after all attempts to obtain correct time information were exhausted. The data also must have position information, i.e. data lacking latitude and longitude values were discarded only after all attempts to correctly position the data failed. Furthermore, if data arrived with no units attached, only after every effort to determine their units was exhausted, were the data discarded. Data collected without a record of time, position, or units are useless to the research community. However, all original data contributions are archived in the event additional information is discovered later that would allow the inclusion of discarded data.

The DAC has now expanded beyond the WOCE parameters to provide other useful cruise data to researchers. These (non-woce;RVSMDC) cruises are set up in very much the same way as WOCE cruises, but are not resricted to the same time and location constraints. Many of the RVSMDC cruises are infact the same ships that provide WOCE data, but just at different times. One of the main differences between WOCE and RVSMDC data are the longitude convention. At the request of the WOCE Data Committee, all WOCE netCDF files (version 300) contain longitude units in the (+E/-W) 180 degrees convention. The RVSMDC standard longitude units are from 0-359.99 degrees East. All data that are not included in WOCE have the 0-359.99 degrees East units convention.

Section 2 outlines the data variables and attributes and describes all numeric codes that are employed. Section 3 covers the global attributes. Throughout the manual, variables will be indicated by bold type and attributes will be italicized.





2. Variables

Up to 31 parameters may appear in a surface meteorology file for WOCE, Table 1. All data files will contain the time, latitude, longitude, and quality control flag variables. The quality control flags are single alphabetic characters that represent either problems or notable features in the data. The quality control flags for multiple variables are combined in a single string and stored in the flag variable. The flag variable as a result is a character string that has a length equal to the number of variables that underwent quality control (a list of the flags, their definitions, and an example of their usage is found in section 2bb). For each variable, Table 1 shows whether or not that attribute is associated with a particular variable.

Table 1: Variable attribute list.
Variable long_name units convers _units type instrument height FORTRAN
_format
qcindex missing_value special_value
cruise_track_code cruise track code code (see text)         A9   N/A N/A
woce_date woce date YYYYMMDD UTC         I9 * N/A N/A
woce_time_of_day woce time of day HHMMSS.SS UTC         F10.2 * N/A N/A
time time min. since 1-1-1980 00:00 UTC   Table 2     I12 * N/A N/A
latitude latitude degrees N Table 3       F9.2 * N/A N/A
longitude** longitude** degrees E**, (+E/-W) 180 degrees** Table 3**       F9.2 * N/A N/A
PL_HD platform heading degrees - clockwise from N Table 4   *   F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
PL_CRS platform course degrees - clockwise from N Table 4  *   F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
PL_SPD platform speed m s-1 Table 5   *   F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
PL_WDIR platform relative wind direction degrees - clockwise from bow Table 4  

*

*

F9.1

*

-9999. -8888.
PL_WSPD platform relative wind speed m s-1 Table 5  

*

*

F9.1

*

-9999. -8888.
DIR earth relative wind direction degrees - clockwise from N Table 4   * * F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
SPD earth relative wind speed m s-1Table 5   * * F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
P atmospheric pressure hPa Table 6 Table 7 * * F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
T air temperature degrees C Table 8   * * F9.2 * -9999. -8888.
TW wet-bulb temperature degrees C Table 8   * * F9.2 * -9999. -8888.
TD dew point temperature degrees C Table 8   * * F9.2 * -9999. -8888.
TS sea temperature degrees C Table 8 Table 9 * * F9.2 * -9999. -8888.
RH relative humidity percent     * * F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
Q specific humidity g kg-1 Table 10   * * F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
PRECIP precipitation mm Table 11   * * F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
RRATE rain rate mm/min Table 11   * * F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
RAD radiation W m-2 Table 12 Table 13 * * F9.1 * -9999. -8888.
WX present weather code
(Table 14)
        I6   -9999 -8888
TCA total cloud amount code
(Table 15)
Table 17       I6   -9999 -8888
LMCA low/middle cloud amount code
(Table 15)
Table 17       I6   -9999 -8888
ZCL cloud height code
(Table 18)
        I6   -9999 -8888
LCT low cloud type code
(Table 19)
        I6   -9999 -8888
MCT middle cloud type code
(Table 20)
        I6   -9999 -8888
HCT high cloud type code
(Table 21)
        I6   -9999 -8888
flag quality control flags code
(Table 22)
        A*   N/A N/A

**At the request of the WOCE Data Committee, all WOCE files (version 300) contain longitude units in the (+E/-W) 180 degrees convention. An example of the WOCE netCDF file is located in Appendix 2. The RVSMDC standard longitude units are from 0-359.99 degrees East. All data that are not included in WOCE have the 0-359.99 degrees East units convention.

The definition of the attributes are:

  • long_name: A descriptive name for the variable which is given in Table 1.
  • units: The SI units used for the variable values. Since no data are useful without units, this attribute will always have a value (when units: is applicable). Units are given for most variables in Table 1. The exception are those variables that are coded (ctc, WX, etc.) which refer to the specific code table.
  • convers_units: The units (SI, English, cgs, etc.) of the variable value when it arrived at the DAC. Again, since no data are useful without units, this attribute will always have a value when present. If a variable has convers_units:, Table 1 references specific code tables for the convers_units:.
  • type: A coded attribute that signifies the variable value as being a certain type. For example, type: indicates if the pressure is station level or converted to sea level. Code tables for type: are referenced in Table 1
  • instrument: A character attribute that contains the make, model number, manufacturer and/or type of instrument used to record the variable values. When no information on the instrument type is known, instrument: = "unknown". Table 1 lists whether or not an instrument: attribute exists for each variable.
  • height: The instrument height in meters above the station elevation (see Global Attributes, section 3). When unknown, height: = -999.9. Table 1 lists whether or not a height: attribute exists for a variable. NOTE: the height attribute for sea temperature is named "depth: "and is a positive number in meters below sea level.
  • FORTRAN_format: A FORTRAN specific format for printing each variable. The formats for ctc, time, woce_date, woce_time_of_day, WX, TCA, LMCA, ZCL, LCT, MCT, and HCT are a fixed length. The length of the flag FORTRAN_format: varies depending on the number of variables that were quality controlled in the netCDF file. All floating point values are represented by F9.n where n indicates the decimal precision of the supplied data. The formats provided in Table 1 show the maximum precision a variable can have within the WOCE netCDF file. As an example, latitude and longitude have a FORTRAN_format: of F9.2 in Table 1. If the position data we receive is accurate to two decimal places, the FORTRAN_format: will remain F9.2. If the position data is only accurate to the tenths place the FORTRAN: _format: will be F9.1 and for data accurate to the whole number the FORTRAN_format: will be F9.0.
  • qcindex: An integer pointer to the flag for the selected variable. Table 1 lists which variables have a qcindex.
  • missing_value: A missing value of -9999 that is used for all variables.
  • special_value: A special value (set equal to -8888) is used to indicate that data were present in the original file, however the data were either:
    a) coded and the value listed did not fit the code range (no qcindex for data)
    or
    b) an overflow value that does not fit the memory space allocated by our internal format.

a) Cruise track code (cruise_track_code)

The cruise track code stores up to a 9 character string that marks each recording time as being either a WOCE cruise, another dedicated cruise (other), or a cruise with an 'unknown' designation. A WOCE cruise_track_code will include the WOCE Hydrographic Program transect line number and a sequential cruise number using the format BRS##D/## where:

  • B: basin (P - Pacific, A - Atlantic, I - Indian, and S - Southern)
  • R: repeat cruise ( if not a repeat, an '_' will occur here)
  • S: time series cruise ( if not a time series, an '_' will occur here)
  • ##: WHP line number
  • D: portion of cruise line (E - east, N - north, W - west, S -south, C - central) where applicable (if not used, an '_' will occur here)
  • /##: repeat cruise number (all repeat and time series cruises will have a number starting from 01. All one time cruises are labeled 00, unless a one time cruise line is completed in several legs, then cruise numbers starting at 01 are given) - in all cases the numbers are sequential based on the date when a cruise became known to the DAC, with the smallest number being the oldest data. The repeat cruise # is unique for each WHP line; however, some gaps in the numbering sequence do exist (e.g., when a planned WHP line was deleted from our archive).


For example, the code PRS14E/17 represents the 17th cruise on the Eastern portion of the Pacific Repeat time Series line number 14.

b) Date (woce_date)

The woce_date contains a four digit year (YYYY), two digit month (MM), and two digit date (DD) for each data record. The woce_date is stored as an integer with a format YYYYMMDD and units in the Universal Time Coordinate (UTC). Note: additional information about the data recording times are located in the variable attributes for time (see below).

c) Time of day (woce_time_of_day)

The woce_time_of_day contains the hour (HH), minute (MM), and seconds (SS.SS) for each data record. The woce_time_of_day is stored as a floating point values of the form HHMMSS.SS and units in the Universal Time Coordinate (UTC). Note: additional information about the data recording times are located in the variable attributes for time (see below).

d) time

The time is a double precision variable with units equal to minutes since 1-1-1980 00:00 UTC. We chose 1980 as our reference year primarily because it is the beginning of the decade that is nearest the start of the WOCE data collection. The time is quality controlled for non-sequential and unrealistic values. The type is encoded according to Table 2.

Table 2: Time types.

code definition
  • 0: unknown time type
  • 1: mean time (Data represent a mean observed/recorded over some period of time. Note: prior to 30 March 1996 the position of the recorded time stamp within the mean (e.g. beginning, end, or middle of mean) and the length of the averaging period will be provided in the data quality reports).
  • 2: instantaneous time (Data are recorded as instantaneous values at the time indicated)


Two other attributes, ave_period and ave_center, were added to files after 30 March 1996 to add detail to mean times. The ave_period will contain the length of the averaging period in seconds or have a value of zero when the ave_period is unknown or N/A.

The codes for the ave_center are:

code definition
  • 0: unknown, N/A
  • 1: time stamp at start of averaging period
  • 2: time stamp at center of averaging period
  • 3: time stamp at end of averaging period

The time will be quality controlled primarily for non-sequential and duplicate time values and the QC flag index will be stored in qcindex.

A FORTRAN subroutine to convert from minutes since 1-1-1980 00:00 UTC to year, month, day, hour, and minute values is provided in Appendix 3.

e) latitude (latitude)
f) longitude (longitude)

Platform position is in units of degrees; positive degrees for north latitude, negative degrees for south latitude, positive 0-359.99 degrees east longitude for all RVSMDC cruises, and (+E/-W) 180 degrees longitude for all WOCE cruises. The units of the original values of latitude and longitude are found in Table 3.

Table 3: Units of original latitude and longitude.

code definition

  • 0: degrees and tenths
  • 1: whole degrees
  • 2: non-random tenths
  • 3: interpolated
  • 4: degrees and minutes
  • 5: high resolution data (e.g., degrees to seconds, or degrees and hundredths)
  • 6: other (refer to supplemental data)

The latitude and longitude are quality controlled for data validity, unrealistic platform movement, and whether an oceanographic platform moves over land.

g) platform heading (PL_HD)

The heading is recorded in units of degrees (recorded clockwise relative to true north) and represents the direction that the bow of the ship is pointing. Valid headings range from 000.0 to 359.9 degrees. A convers_units attribute stores the original format of compass values using the codes found below in Table 4.

h) platform course (PL_CRS)

The course is recorded in units of degrees (recorded clockwise relative to true north) and represents the direction that the ship is moving relative to the fixed earth. Valid course values range from 000.0 to 359.9 degrees. A convers_units attribute stores the original method of recording the course using the codes in Table 4.

i) platform speed (PL_SPD)

The platform speed is recorded in units of meter per second after a conversion from the original units (encoded using Table 5). Often multiple values are present including, but not limited to, a speed relative to the water (doppler log, etc.) and a speed relative to the earth (gps).

j) earth-relative wind direction (DIR)

The earth-relative wind direction is stored with units of degrees and is encoded using
000.0 = calm
001.0-360.0 = direction in degrees
361.0 = variable (rarely used in bridge data only)
going clockwise from true north. All wind directions are reported in the standard meteorological convention; the direction the wind is blowing from. Table 4 lists the possible compass types used to record the original data.

Table 4: Wind direction conversion units.

Code Definition

  • 0: 36-point compass
  • 1: 32-point compass
  • 2: 16 of 36-point compass
  • 3: 16 of 32-point compass
  • 4: 8-point compass
  • 5: 360-point compass
  • 6: high resolution data (e.g., tenths of degrees)
  • 7: 16 point compass
  • 8: u,v components

k) earth-relative wind speed (SPD)

The earth-relative wind speed is recorded in units of meters per second, and Table 5 lists the codes for the original units of the wind speed data.

Table 5: Wind speed conversion units.

Code Definition

  • 0: meters per second, estimated
  • 1: meters per second, unknown
  • 2: meters per second, measured
  • 3: knots, estimated
  • 4: knots, unknown
  • 5: knots, measured
  • 6: Beaufort force (based on documentation)
  • 7: high resolution measurement (e.g., hundredths of a meter per second)
  • 8: u,v components (m/s)
  • 9: u,v components (knots)

NOTE: TRUE WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION ARE EITHER CALCULATED BY THE DATA PROVIDER AND CHECKED BY THE DAC, OR THEY ARE CALCULATED BY THE DAC. A comment in the instrument attribute will be included.

NOTE 2: FILES RELEASED AFTER 19 AUGUST 1997 MAY CONTAIN PLATFORM RELATIVE WIND DIRECTION (PL_WDIR) AND SPEED (PL_WSPD). These variables are necessary when assessing errors caused by flow over the vessel or the vessel's acceleration. PL_WDIR and PL_WSPD data for cruises released before 19 August 1997 are available upon request. All coding and units for PL_WDIR and PL_WSPD are the same as DIR and SPD, with the exception that the PL_WDIR is referenced to a zero line on the vessel. This zero_line_ref is included as a variable attribute and coded:

Code Definition

  • 000.0 : Bow (Default value)
  • 090.0 : Starboard
  • 180.0 : Stern
  • 270.0 ; Port

l) atmospheric pressure (P)

Pressure is recorded in units of hectopascals. The units of the original data are listed in Table 6 and Table 7 outlines the codes for the pressure type.

Table 6: Atmospheric pressure conversion units.

Code Definition

  • 0: hectopascals (millibars)
  • 1: bars
  • 2: millimeters of mercury
  • 3: inches of mercury
  • 4: pascals
  • 5: high resolution (0.01 mb)
  • 6: kilopascals

Table 7: Atmospheric pressure type.

Code Definition

  • 0: unknown type
  • 1: sea level
  • 2: station level

m) air temperature (T)
n) wet-bulb temperature (TW)
o) dew point temperature (TD)

All atmospheric temperatures are recorded in units of degrees Celsius after a conversion from the original units (see Table 8).

Table 8: Temperature conversion units.

Code Definition

  • 0: degrees Celsius and tenths
  • 1: half degrees Celsius
  • 2: whole degrees Celsius
  • 3: degrees Fahrenheit and tenths
  • 4: half degrees Fahrenheit
  • 5: whole degrees Fahrenheit
  • 6: high resolution data (e.g., hundredths of a degree Celsius or Fahrenheit)
  • 7: other (notes will be found in data quality reports)

p) sea temperature (TS)

The sea temperature is recorded in units of degrees Celsius with the original units encoded according to Table 8. NOTE: The sensor depth is recorded in meters and has a positive value for all non-missing values (the attribute name is changed from height to avoid confusion). The specific instrument type used to measure the sea temperature is stored in instrument while the general instrument type is recorded using the codes in Table 9.

Table 9: General instrument types used to record sea temperature.

Code Definition

  • 0: unknown
  • 1: condenser inlet (intake)
  • 2: trailing thermistor
  • 3: hull contact sensor
  • 4: through hull sensor
  • 5: radiation thermometer
  • 6: bait tanks thermometer
  • 7: others
  • 8: bucket
  • 9: implied bucket (an HSST SID or any match)
  • 10: reversing thermometer
  • 11: other electronic sensor
  • 12: thermosalinograph

q) relative humidity (RH)

The relative humidity is recorded in units of percent.

r) specific humidity (Q)

Specific humidity is recorded in units of grams per kilogram and the codes for convers_units are found in Table 10.

Table 10: Original specific humidity units.

Code Definition

  • 0: g kg-1
  • 1: kg kg-1


s) precipitation (PRECIP) [rain rate (RRATE)]

The precipitation [rain rate] is recorded in units of millimeters [per minute] and Table 11 lists the original precipitation [rain rate] units.

Table 11: Precipitation conversion units.

Code Definition

  • 0: inches [per minute]
  • 1: tenths of an inch [per minute]
  • 2: hundredths of an inch [per minute]
  • 3: centimeters [per minute]
  • 4: millimeters [per minute]
  • 5: high resolution (>0.1 millimeter) [per minute]

t) atmospheric radiation (RAD)

All radiation parameters will be stored in sequentially numbered RAD variables with units of watts per meter squared. The original radiation units are encoded based on Table 12 and the radiation types are listed in Table 13.

Table 12: Radiation conversion units.

Code Definition

  • 0: watts meter-2
  • 1: calories centimeters-2 minute-1
  • 2: langley
  • 3: other
  • 4: kilowatts meter-2

Table 13: Radiation types.

Code Definition

  • 0: unknown
  • 1: downwelling shortwave
  • 2: upwelling shortwave
  • 3: downwelling longwave
  • 4: upwelling longwave
  • 5: total downwelling
  • 6: total upwelling
  • 7: net
  • 8: other
  • 9: ultraviolet
  • 10: net longwave
  • 11: Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)

u) present weather (WX)

Table 14: Present weather codes are the same as those from COADS data (Slutz et al. 1985).

Code Definition

  • Codes 00 to 19 indicate no precipitation at the site (e.g., ship, buoy, etc.) at time of observation:
    • 00: cloud development not observed.
    • 01: clouds generally dissolving or becoming less developed.
    • 02: state of the sky unchanged.
    • 03: clouds generally forming or developing.
    • 04: visibility reduced by smoke.
    • 05: haze.
    • 06: widespread dust in suspension in the air, not raised by wind at or near the station at time of observation.
    • 07: dust or sand raised by wind at or near the station at time of observation, but no well-developed dust whirls or sand whirls and no dust storm or sandstorm seen.
    • 08: well developed dust whirls or sand whirls seen at or near the station during the preceding hour or at time of observation, but no dust storm or sandstorm.
    • 09: dust storm or sandstorm within sight at time of observation, or at the station during the preceding hour.
    • 10: light fog (visibility 1,100 yards or more); synonymous with European term "mist."
    • 11: patches of shallow fog or ice fog at the station, not deeper than about 10 meters.
    • 12: more or less continuous shallow fog or ice fog at the station, not deeper than about 10 meters.
    • 13: lightning visible, no thunder heard.
    • 14: precipitation within sight, not reaching the surface of the sea.
    • 15: precipitation within sight, reaching the surface of the sea, but more than 5 kilometers from the station.
    • 16: precipitation within sight, reaching the surface of the sea, near to, but not at the station.
    • 17: thunderstorm, but no precipitation at time of observation.
    • 18: squalls at or within sight of the station during the preceding hour or at time of observation.
    • 19: funnel cloud or waterspout at or within sight of the station during the preceding hour or at time of observation.
  • Codes 20 to 29 refer to phenomena that occurred at the station during the preceding hour but not at time of observation:
    • 20: drizzle (not freezing) or snow grains.
    • 21: rain (not freezing).
    • 22: snow.
    • 23: rain and snow or ice pellets, type (a).
    • 24: freezing drizzle or freezing rain.
    • 25: shower of rain.
    • 26: shower of snow, or of rain and snow.
    • 27: shower of hail (ice pellets, type (b), snow pellets), or of rain and hail.
    • 28: fog or ice fog.
    • 29: thunderstorm (with or without precipitation).
  • Codes 30 to 99 refer to phenomena occurring at the ship at time of observation:

    • 30: slight or moderate dust storm or sandstorm has decreased during the preceding hour.
    • 31: slight or moderate dust storm or sandstorm with no appreciable change during the preceding hour.
    • 32: slight or moderate dust storm or sandstorm has begun or has increased during the preceding hour.
    • 33: severe dust storm or sandstorm has decreased during the preceding hour.
    • 34: severe dust storm or sandstorm with no appreciable change during the preceding hour.
    • 35: severe dust storm or sandstorm has begun or has increased during the preceding hour.
    • 36: slight or moderate drifting snow generally low (below eye-level, less than 6 feet).
    • 37: heavy drifting snow generally low (below eye level, less than 6 feet).
    • 38: slight or moderate blowing snow generally high (above eye-level, 6 feet or more).
    • 39: heavy blowing snow generally high (above eye level, 6 feet or more).
    • 40: fog or ice fog at a distance at time of observation, but not at the station during the preceding hour, the fog or ice fog extending to a level above that of the observer.
    • 41: fog or ice fog in patches.
    • 42: fog or ice fog (sky visible) has become thinner during the preceding hour.
    • 43: fog or ice fog (sky invisible) has become thinner during the preceding hour.
    • 44: fog or ice fog (sky visible) with no appreciable change during the preceding hour.
    • 45: fog or ice fog (sky invisible) with no appreciable change during the preceding hour.
    • 46: fog or ice fog (sky visible) has begun or has become thicker during the preceding hour.
    • 47: fog or ice fog (sky invisible) has begun or has become thicker during the preceding hour.
    • 48: fog, depositing rime, sky visible.
    • 49: fog, depositing rime, sky invisible.
  • Codes 50 to 99 indicate precipitation at the station at time of observation:

    • 50: drizzle, not freezing, intermittent, slight at time of observation.
    • 51: drizzle, not freezing, continuous, slight at time of observation.
    • 52: drizzle, not freezing, intermittent, moderate at time of observation.
    • 53: drizzle, not freezing, continuous, moderate at time of observation.
    • 54: drizzle, not freezing, intermittent, heavy (dense) at time of observation.
    • 55: drizzle, not freezing, continuous, heavy (dense) at time of observation.
    • 56: drizzle, freezing, slight.
    • 57: drizzle, freezing, moderate or heavy (dense).
    • 58: drizzle and rain, slight.
    • 59: drizzle and rain, moderate or heavy.
    • 60: rain, not freezing, intermittent, slight at time of observation.
    • 61: rain, not freezing, continuous, slight at time of observation.
    • 62: rain, not freezing, intermittent, moderate at time of observation.
    • 63: rain, not freezing, continuous, moderate at time of observation.
    • 64: rain, not freezing, intermittent, heavy at time of observation.
    • 65: rain, not freezing, continuous, heavy at time of observation.
    • 66: rain, freezing, slight.
    • 67: rain, freezing, moderate or heavy.
    • 68: rain or drizzle and snow, slight.
    • 69: rain or drizzle and snow, moderate or heavy.
    • 70: intermittent fall of snowflakes, slight at time of observation.
    • 71: continuous fall of snowflakes, slight at time of observation.
    • 72: intermittent fall of snowflakes, moderate at time of observation.
    • 73: continuous fall of snowflakes, moderate at time of observation.
    • 74: intermittent fall of snowflakes, heavy at time of observation.
    • 75: continuous fall of snowflakes, heavy at time of observation.
    • 76: ice prisms (with or without fog).
    • 77: snow grains (with or without fog).
    • 78: isolated star-like snow crystals (with or without fog).
    • 79: ice pellets, type (a) (sleet, U.S. definition).
    • 80: rain shower, slight.
    • 81: rain shower, moderate or heavy.
    • 82: rain shower, violent.
    • 83: shower of rain and snow mixed, slight.
    • 84: shower of rain and snow mixed, moderate or heavy.
    • 85: snow shower, slight.
    • 86: snow shower, moderate or heavy.
    • 87: slight showers of snow pellets or ice pellets, type (b), with or without rain or rain and snow mixed.
    • 88: moderate or heavy showers of snow pellets or ice pellets, type (b), with or without rain or rain and snow mixed.
    • 89: slight showers of hail, with or without rain or rain and snow mixed, not associated with thunder.
    • 90: moderate or heavy showers of hail, with or without rain or rain and snow, mixed, not associated with thunder.
    • 91: slight rain at time of observation, thunderstorm during preceding hour but not at time of observation.
    • 92: moderate or heavy rain at time of observation, thunderstorm during preceding hour but not at time of observation.
    • 93: slight snow, or rain and snow mixed, or hail, at time of observation with thunderstorm during the preceding hour but not at time of observation.
    • 94: moderate or heavy snow, or rain and snow mixed, or hail, at time of observation with thunderstorm during the preceding hour but not at time of observation.
    • 95: thunderstorm, slight or moderate, without hail, but with rain and/or snow at time of observation.
    • 96: thunderstorm, slight or moderate, with hail at time of observation.
    • 97: thunderstorm, heavy, without hail but with rain and/or snow at time of observation.
    • 98: thunderstorm combined with dust storm or sandstorm at time of observation.
    • 99: thunderstorm, heavy, with hail at time of observation.

v) total cloud amount (TCA)
w) low/middle cloud amount (LMCA)

The codes for the total and low/middle cloud amounts (Table 15) are from the COADS data (Slutz et al. 1985). For the total cloud amount, codes 0 to 9 show the fraction, in oktas, of the celestial dome covered by all clouds. For the low/middle cloud amount the codes show the fraction, in oktas, of the celestial dome covered by all the low clouds and, if no low clouds are present, the fraction covered by all the middle clouds.

Table 15: Cloud amount codes.

Code Definition

  • 0: clear
  • 1: 1 okta or less, but not zero.
  • 2-6: 2-6 oktas.
  • 7: 7 oktas or more, but not 8 oktas.
  • 8: 8 oktas.
  • 9: sky obscured or cloud amount cannot be estimated.

If the data arriving at the DAC use tenths to describe cloud cover, the convention in Table 16 will be used to convert from tenths to oktas and the original data units will be noted using the codes in Table 17.

Table 16: Relationship between tenths and oktas.

tenths oktas

  • 0:     0
  • 1:     1
  • 2,3:  2
  • 4:     3
  • 5:     4
  • 6:     5
  • 7,8:   6
  • 9:      7
  • 10:    8

Table 17: Cloud amount conversion units.

Code Definition

  • 1: oktas
  • 2: tenths

x) cloud height (ZCL)

Cloud height is recorded using the standard 0-10 synoptic code. Table 17 shows the height ranges and codes for measurements in feet or meters.

Table 18: Cloud height codes, adapted from table 9 of the COADS data documentation (Slutz et al. 1985) .

Approximate height of lowest cloud base
CodeFeetMeters
CodeFeetMeters
  • 0:
  • 0-1490-49
  • 1:
  • 150-29950-99
  • 2:
  • 300-599100-199
  • 3:
  • 600-999200-299
  • 4:
  • 1000-1999300-599
  • 5:
  • 2000-3499600-999
  • 6:
  • 3500-49991000-1499
  • 7:
  • 5000-64991500-1999
  • 8:
  • 6500-79992000-2499
  • 9:
  • >=8000 or no clouds>=2500 or no clouds
  • 10:
  • indicates that the cloud height cannot be estimated because of darkness or for other reasons.

    y) low cloud type (LCT)

    Table 19: Low cloud type codes extracted from the COADS data documentation (Slutz et al. 1985). The codes show observed characteristics of clouds of the types stratocumulus, stratus, cumulus, cumulonimbus, and their variations.

    Code Definition

    • 0: no stratocumulus, stratus, cumulus, or cumulonimbus.
    • 1: cumulus with little vertical extent and seemingly flattened, or ragged cumulus other than of bad weather, or both.
    • 2: cumulus of moderate or strong vertical extent, generally with protuberances in the form of domes or towers, either accompanied or not by other cumulus or by stratocumulus, all having their base at the same level.
    • 3: cumulonimbus the summits of which, at least partially, lack sharp outlines but are neither clearly fibrous (cirriform) nor in the form of an anvil; cumulus, stratocumulus, or stratus may also be present.
    • 4: stratocumulus formed by the spreading out of cumulus; cumulus may also be present.
    • 5: stratocumulus not resulting from the spreading out of cumulus.
    • 6: stratus in a more or less continuous sheet or layer, or in ragged shreds, or both, but no stratus fractus of bad weather.
    • 7: stratus fractus of bad weather (generally existing during precipitation and a short time before and after) or cumulus fractus of bad weather, or both (pannus), usually below altostratus or nimbostratus.
    • 8: cumulus and stratocumulus other than that formed from the spreading out of cumulus; the base of the cumulus is at a different level from that of the stratocumulus.
    • 9: cumulonimbus, the upper part of which is clearly fibrous (cirriform), often in the form of an anvil; either accompanied or not by cumulonimbus without anvil or fibrous upper part, by cumulus, stratocumulus, stratus, or pannus.
    • 10: low clouds not visible, owing to darkness, fog, blowing dust or sand, or other similar phenomena.

    z) middle cloud type (MCT)

    Table 20: Middle cloud type codes extracted from the COADS data documentation (Slutz et al. 1985). The codes show observed characteristics of clouds of the types altocumulus, altostratus, and nimbostratus.

    Code Definition

    • 0: no altocumulus, altostratus, or nimbostratus.
    • 1: altostratus, the greater part of which is semi-transparent; through this part the sun or moon may be weakly visible, as through ground glass.
    • 2: altostratus, the greater part of which is sufficiently dense to hide the sun or moon, or nimbostratus.
    • 3: altocumulus, the greater part of which is semi-transparent; the various elements of the cloud change only slowly and are all at a single level.
    • 4: patches (often in the form of almonds or fishes) of altocumulus, the greater part of which is semi-transparent; the clouds occur at one or more levels and the elements are continually changing in appearance.
    • 5: semi-transparent altocumulus in bands, or altocumulus in one or more fairly continuous layers (semi-transparent or opaque), progressively invading the sky; these altocumulus clouds generally thicken as a whole.
    • 6: altocumulus resulting from the spreading out of cumulus (or cumulonimbus).
    • 7: altocumulus in two or more layers, usually opaque in places, and not progressively invading the sky; or opaque layer of altocumulus, not progressively invading the sky; or altocumulus together with altostratus or nimbostratus.
    • 8: altocumulus with sproutings in the form of small towers or battlements; or altocumulus having the appearance of cumuliform tufts.
    • 9: altocumulus of a chaotic sky, generally at several levels.
    • 10: middle clouds not visible, owing to darkness, fog, blowing dust or sand, or other similar phenomena, or more often because of the presence of a continuous layer of lower clouds.

    aa) high cloud type (HCT)

    Table 21: High cloud type codes extracted from the COADS data documentation (Slutz et al. 1985). The codes show observed characteristics of clouds of the types cirrus, cirrocumulus and cirrostratus.

    Code Definition

    • 0: no cirrus, cirrocumulus or cirrostratus.
    • 1: cirrus in the form of filaments, strands, or hooks, not progressively invading the sky.
    • 2: dense cirrus, in patches or entangled sheaves, which usually do not increase and sometimes seem to be the remains of the upper part of a cumulonimbus, or cirrus with sproutings in the form of small turrets or battlements, or cirrus having the appearance of cumuliform tufts.
    • 3: dense cirrus, often in the form of an anvil, being the remains of the upper parts of cumulonimbus.
    • 4: cirrus in the form of hooks or of filaments, or both, progressively invading the sky; they generally become denser as a whole.
    • 5: cirrus (often in bands converging towards one point or two opposite points of the horizon) and cirrostratus, or cirrostratus alone; in either case, they are progressively invading the sky, and generally growing denser as a whole, but the continuous veil does not reach 45 degrees above the horizon.
    • 6: cirrus (often in bands converging towards one point or two opposite points of the horizon) and cirrostratus, or cirrostratus alone; in either case, they are progressively invading the sky, and generally growing denser as a whole; the continuous veil extends more than 45 degrees above the horizon, without the sky being totally covered.
    • 7: veil of cirrostratus covering the celestial dome.
    • 8: cirrostratus not progressively invading the sky and not completely covering the celestial dome.
    • 9: cirrocumulus alone, or cirrocumulus accompanied by cirrus or cirrostratus, or both, but cirrocumulus is predominant.
    • 10: high clouds not visible, owing to darkness, fog, blowing dust or sand, or other similar phenomena, or more often because of the presence of a continuous layer of lower clouds.


    bb) quality control flags (flag)

    The quality control flags (Table 22) are single alphabetic characters for each data value. Only those variables with a qcindex have flag values (the qcindex is an integer pointer to the flag for a selected variable), i.e. not all meteorological variables are quality controlled.

    Table 22: Definitions of WOCE quality control flags.

    Flag Definition

    • A: Original data had unknown units. The units shown were determine dusing a climatology or some other method.
    • B: Original data were out of the range bounds outlined (Table 23).
    • C: Time data are not sequential or date/time not valid.
    • D: Data failed T>=Tw>=Td test. In the free atmosphere, the value of the temperature is always greater than or equal to the wet-bulb temperature, which in turn is always greater than or equal to the dew point temperature.
    • E: Data failed resultant wind recomputation check. When the data set includes the platform's heading, course, and speed along with the platform relative wind speed and direction, a program recomputes the earth relative wind speed and direction and compares the computed values to the reported earth relative wind speed and direction. A failed test occurs when the wind direction difference is > 20 degrees or the wind speed difference is >2.5m/s.
    • F: Platform velocity unrealistic. Determined by analyzing latitude and longitude positions as well as reported platform speed data.
    • G: Data are greater than 4 standard deviations from the COADS climatological means (da Silva et al. 1994). The test is only applied to pressure, temperature, sea temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed data.
    • H: Discontinuity found in data
    • I: Interesting feature found in data. More specific information on the feature is contained in the data reports. Examples include: hurricanes passing stations, sharp sea water temperature gradients, strong convective events, etc.
    • J: Data are of poor quality by visual inspection, DO NOT USE.
    • K: Data suspect/use with caution - this flag applies when the data look to have obvious errors, but no specific reason for the error can be determined.
    • L: Oceanographic platform passes over land or fixed platform moves dramatically.
    • M: Known instrument malfunction.
    • O: Original units differ from those listed in the convers_units variable attribute. See quality control report for details.
    • P: Position of platform or its movement are uncertain. Data should be used with caution.
    • Q: Questionable - data arrived at DAC already flagged as questionable/uncertain.
    • R: Replaced with an interpolated value. Often done prior to arrival at the DAC. Flag is used to note condition.
    • S: Spike in the data. Usually one or two sequential data values (sometimes up to 4 values) that are drastically out of the current data trend. Spikes occur for many reasons including power surges, typos, data logging problems, lightning strikes, etc.
    • T: Time duplicate
    • Z: Data passed evaluation.

    Table 23: Range Bounds used in determining the use of flag B.
    Variable Lower Bound Upper Bound UnitsOther
    time 1-1-1980 12-31-1999   
    latitude -90 90 degrees 
    longitude 0*; -180W* 359.99*; +180E* degrees 
    platform heading 0 359.9 degrees 
    platform course
    0
    359.9

    degrees

     
    platform speed 0 15 m s-1 research vessels
    wind direction 0 360 degrees  
    wind speed 0 40 m s-1  
    pressure 950 1050 mb Sea level
    air temperature -10 40 deg. Celsius  
    wet bulb temperature -10 40 deg. Celsius  
    dew point temperature -10 40 deg. Celsius  
    sea temperature 0 35 deg. Celsius  
    relative humidity 0 100 percent  
    specific humidity 0 48 g kg-1  
    rain rate 0 150 mm hr-1  
    radiation 0 1400 W m-2  

    **At the request of the WOCE Data Committee, all WOCE files (version 300) contain longitude units in the (+E/-W) 180 degrees convention. An example of the WOCE netCDF file is located in Appendix 2. The RVSMDC standard longitude units are from 0-359.99 degrees East. All data that are not included in WOCE have the 0-359.99 degrees East units convention.


    As an example of the usage of the flag variable, assume that a WOCE netCDF file contains only time, latitude, longitude, atmospheric pressure, and air temperature data along with a flag variable. Based on Table 1, all five variables will be quality controlled and each will have a unique qcindex. If the values for the first record of all five variables pass all quality control checks, then the first record of the flag variable will contain "ZZZZZ"; i.e. the flag variable contains QC flags for each QC variable, in this example 5 flags. However, if the second record contains a non-sequential time, but good latitude and longitude values, a pressure value of 1090 mb, and a temperature that is 6 standard deviations from the climatology, then the second record of flag will contain "CZZBG". The qcindex allows access to the flags for any variable. For example, the flag for the second record for atmospheric pressure (qcindex=4) is a "B" indicating the pressure value is out of bounds.




    3. Global Attributes

    The global attributes in the WOCE DAC netCDF files include parameters that apply to all the variables in the file or to the file in general. Again a mix of data and metadata are included.

    a) title

    A descriptive title highlighting the platform name, location, and special instrument characteristics. Often used to title plots of the data from the netCDF file. Ex: "Bridge observations - R/V Vidal Gormaz - PR_14_/04 Cruise"

    b) site

    This attribute will contain either the alphanumeric R/V name or buoy location name.

    c) elev

    Stores the geographic elevation of the site in meters above sea level. This value is zero for ships and buoys.

    d) ID

    Either the ship/platform identification, call sign, or WMO number.

    e) platform

    Instrument system that recorded the data. For example: IMET, PAM, ATLAS, unspecified tower, bridge report, hand held instruments, etc.

    f) facility

    The institution or country that either collected the data or are the primary holder of the data. For example: NOAA, PMEL, WHOI, University of Washington, Chile, etc. Also included is the name of the PI or primary data provider for the original files.

    g) fsu_version

    The current version number or the data in the file.


    h) startdate

    The first date of the data in the file. Coded as DD MMM YYYY where
    DD Day number (01 to 31)
    MMM Month (JAN,FEB,MAR,APR,MAY,JUN,JUL,AUG,SEP,OCT,NOV,DEC)
    YYYY Four digit year (ex: 1992).

    i) enddate

    The last date of the data in the file. Coded the same as startdate.

    j) EXPOCODE

    Identifier for all WOCE cruises created by the WOCE Hydrographic Programme Office and obtained from the WOCE DIU at the University of Delaware. This identifier is appended to help match our data files to other oceanographic data sets.

    k) Release_Date

    Date that QC data set was released by WOCE DAC.

    l) contact_info

    Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS), The Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306-2840, USA.

    m) contact_email

    wocemet@coaps.fsu.edu





    4. References

    da Silva, A. M., C. C. Young, and S. Levitus, 1994: Atlas of Surface Marine Data, Volumes 1: Algorithms and Procedures. NOAA Atlas Series, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, NESDIS, Data, and Information Service : For sale by the U.S. G.P.O., Supt. of Docs.

    Slutz, R.J., S.J. Lubker, J.D. Hiscox, S.D. Woodruff, R.L. Jenne, D.H. Joseph, P.M. Steurer, and J.D. Elms, COADS (Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set) Release 1, pp. 300, CIRES University of Colorado, 1985.





    Appendix 1

    Unidata netCDF
    Version 3.3.1
    June 1997

    The Unidata network Common Data Form (netCDF) is an interface for scientific data access and a freely-distributed software library that provides an implementation of the interface. The netCDF library also defines a machine-independent format for representing scientific data. Together, the interface, library, and format support the creation, access, and sharing of scientific data. The current netCDF software provides common C, FORTRAN, and C++, and perl interfaces for applications and data. It has been tested on various common platforms.

    netCDF files are self-describing, network-transparent, directly accessible, and extendible. `Self-describing' means that a netCDF file includes information about the data it contains. `Network-transparent' means that a netCDF file is represented in a form that can be accessed by computers with different ways of storing integers, characters, and floating-point numbers. `Direct-access' means that a small subset of a large dataset may be accessed efficiently, without first reading through all the preceding data. `Extendible' means that data can be appended to a netCDF dataset without copying it or redefining its structure.

    netCDF is useful for supporting access to diverse kinds of scientific data in heterogeneous networking environments and for writing application software that does not depend on application-specific formats. A variety of analysis and display packages have been developed to analyze and display data in netCDF form.

    You can obtain a copy of the latest released version of netCDF software using a WWW browser or anonymous FTP from

    ftp://ftp.unidata.ucar.edu/pub/netCDF/netCDF.tar.Z

    Included in this distribution are: the C source for the netCDF data access library, sources for the FORTRAN and C++ interfaces, documentation for the netCDF library and utilities in the form of a netCDF User's Guide, source for the netCDF utilities ncdump and ncgen, and test programs to verify the correct implementation of the netCDF library.

    More information about netCDF, including a Frequently Asked Questions list and access to on-line documentation, is available from the URL

    http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/netCDF/

    A mailing list, netCDF group@unidata.ucar.edu, exists for discussion of the netCDF interface and announcements about netCDF bugs, fixes, and enhancements. For information about how to subscribe, see the URL

    http://www.unidata.ucar.edu/packages/netCDF/mailing-lists.html

    An archive of past postings to the netCDFgroup mailing list is available for searching from the netCDF home page.

    Questions about netCDF may be sent to support@unidata.ucar.edu.



    Appendix 2

    Sample listing of the contents of a public (version 3.0.0) netCDF file created by the FSU DAC. This file is stored in a binary format but the listing presented here can be created using a netCDF utility called "ncdump" (refer to information provided by Unidata, Appendix 1). All arrays are indexed by the time.
    netCDF CCVG.931007011v300 {
    dimensions:
            time = 43 ;
            f_string = 12 ;
            ctc_string = 9 ;
    variables:
            char cruise_track_code(time, ctc_string) ;
                    cruise_track_code:long_name = "cruise track code" ;
                    cruise_track_code:FORTRAN_format = "a9" ;
            long woce_date(time) ;
                    woce_date:long_name = "woce date" ;
                    woce_date:units = "YYYYMMDD UTC" ;
                    woce_date:qcindex = 1 ;
                    woce_date:FORTRAN_format = "I9" ;
            float woce_time_of_day(time) ;
                    woce_time_of_day:long_name = "woce time of day" ;
                    woce_time_of_day:units = "HHMMSS.SS UTC" ;
                    woce_time_of_day:qcindex = 1 ;
                    woce_time_of_day:FORTRAN_format = "F10.2" ;
            long time(time) ;
                    time:long_name = "cruise track code" ;
                    time:units = "minutes from 1-1-1980 00:00 UTC" ;
                    time:type = 2 ;
                    time:ave_period = 0 ;
                    time:ave_center = 0 ;
                    time:qcindex = 1 ;
                    time:FORTRAN_format = "i12" ;
            float latitude(time) ;
                    latitude:long_name = "latitude" ;
                    latitude:units = "degrees (+N)" ;
                    latitude:convers_units = 0 ;
                    latitude:qcindex = 2 ;
                    latitude:FORTRAN_format = "f9.1" ;
            float longitude(time) ;
                    longitude:long_name = "longitude" ;
                    longitude:units = "degrees (+E)" ;
                    longitude:convers_units = 0 ;
                    longitude:qcindex = 3 ;
                    longitude:FORTRAN_format = "f9.1" ;
            float PL_CRS(time) ;
                    PL_CRS:long_name = "platform course" ;
                    PL_CRS:units = "degrees (clockwise from true north)" ;
                    PL_CRS:convers_units = 5 ;
                    PL_CRS:instrument = "Magellan 5000D GPS" ;
                    PL_CRS:qcindex = 4 ;
                    PL_CRS:FORTRAN_format = "f9.0" ;
                    PL_CRS:missing_value = -9999.f ;
                    PL_CRS:special_value = -8888.f ;
            float PL_SPD(time) ;
                    PL_SPD:long_name = "platform speed" ;
                    PL_SPD:units = "meters/second" ;
                    PL_SPD:convers_units = 5 ;
                    PL_SPD:instrument = "Magellan 5000D GPS" ;
                    PL_SPD:qcindex = 5 ;
                    PL_SPD:FORTRAN_format = "f9.1" ;
                    PL_SPD:missing_value = -9999.f ;
                    PL_SPD:special_value = -8888.f ;
            float DIR(time) ;
                    DIR:long_name = "earth relative wind direction (meteorological)" ;
                    DIR:units = "degrees true" ;
                    DIR:convers_units = 0 ;
                    DIR:height = 15.24 ;
                    DIR:instrument = "calc from F420G Electric Speed Indicator (USA)" ;
                    DIR:qcindex = 6 ;
                    DIR:FORTRAN_format = "f9.0" ;
                    DIR:missing_value = -9999.f ;
                    DIR:special_value = -8888.f ;
            float SPD(time) ;
                    SPD:long_name = "earth relative wind speed" ;
                    SPD:units = "meters/second" ;
                    SPD:convers_units = 5 ;
                    SPD:height = 15.24 ;
                    SPD:instrument = "calc from F420G Electric Speed Indicator (USA)" ;
                    SPD:qcindex = 7 ;
                    SPD:FORTRAN_format = "f9.0" ;
                    SPD:missing_value = -9999.f ;
                    SPD:special_value = -8888.f ;
            float P(time) ;
                    P:long_name = "atmospheric pressure" ;
                    P:units = "hPa" ;
                    P:convers_units = 0 ;
                    P:height = -999.9 ;
                    P:type = 2 ;
                    P:instrument = "Lufft model 8103 quartz barograph" ;
                    P:qcindex = 8 ;
                    P:FORTRAN_format = "f9.1" ;
                    P:missing_value = -9999.f ;
                    P:special_value = -8888.f ;
            float T(time) ;
                    T:long_name = "air temperature" ;
                    T:units = "Celsius" ;
                    T:convers_units = 0 ;
                    T:height = -999.9 ;
                    T:instrument = "Nurnberg thermometer" ;
                    T:qcindex = 9 ;
                    T:FORTRAN_format = "f9.1" ;
                    T:missing_value = -9999.f ;
                    T:special_value = -8888.f ;
            float TS(time) ;
                    TS:long_name = "sea temperature" ;
                    TS:units = "Celsius" ;
                    TS:convers_units = 0 ;
                    TS:height = -999.9 ;
                    TS:type = 1 ;
                    TS:instrument = "themocouple" ;
                    TS:qcindex = 10 ;
                    TS:FORTRAN_format = "f9.1" ;
                    TS:missing_value = -9999.f ;
                    TS:special_value = -8888.f ;
            float TD(time) ;
                    TD:long_name = "dewpoint temperature" ;
                    TD:units = "Celsius" ;
                    TD:convers_units = 2 ;
                    TD:height = -999.9 ;
                    TD:instrument = "NOAA/NWS ship synoptic code table" ;
                    TD:qcindex = 11 ;
                    TD:FORTRAN_format = "f9.1" ;
                    TD:missing_value = -9999.f ;
                    TD:special_value = -8888.f ;
            float TW(time) ;
                    TW:long_name = "wet bulb temperature" ;
                    TW:units = "Celsius" ;
                    TW:convers_units = 0 ;
                    TW:height = -999.9 ;
                    TW:instrument = "Nurnberg thermometer" ;
                    TW:qcindex = 12 ;
                    TW:FORTRAN_format = "f9.1" ;
                    TW:missing_value = -9999.f ;
                    TW:special_value = -8888.f ;
            short WX(time) ;
                    WX:long_name = "present weather" ;
                    WX:FORTRAN_format = "i6" ;
                    WX:missing_value = -9999s ;
                    WX:special_value = -8888s ;
            short TCA(time) ;
                    TCA:long_name = "total cloud amount" ;
                    TCA:convers_units = 1 ;
                    TCA:FORTRAN_format = "i6" ;
                    TCA:missing_value = -9999s ;
                    TCA:special_value = -8888s ;
            short LMCA(time) ;
                    LMCA:long_name = "low/middle cloud amount" ;
                    LMCA:convers_units = 1 ;
                    LMCA:FORTRAN_format = "i6" ;
                    LMCA:missing_value = -9999s ;
                    LMCA:special_value = -8888s ;
            short ZCL(time) ;
                    ZCL:long_name = "cloud base height" ;
                    ZCL:FORTRAN_format = "i6" ;
                    ZCL:missing_value = -9999s ;
                    ZCL:special_value = -8888s ;
            short LCT(time) ;
                    LCT:long_name = "low cloud type" ;
                    LCT:FORTRAN_format = "i6" ;
                    LCT:missing_value = -9999s ;
                    LCT:special_value = -8888s ;
            short MCT(time) ;
                    MCT:long_name = "middle cloud type" ;
                    MCT:FORTRAN_format = "i6" ;
                    MCT:missing_value = -9999s ;
                    MCT:special_value = -8888s ;
            short HCT(time) ;
                    HCT:long_name = "high cloud type" ;
                    HCT:FORTRAN_format = "i6" ;
                    HCT:missing_value = -9999s ;
                    HCT:special_value = -8888s ;
            char flag(time, f_string) ;
                    flag:long_name = "quality control flags" ;
                    flag:FORTRAN_format = "a12" ;
                    flag:A = "Units added." ;
                    flag:B = "Data out of range." ;
                    flag:C = "Non-sequential time." ;
                    flag:D = "Failed T>Tw>Td." ;
                    flag:E = "True wind error." ;
                    flag:F = "Velocity unrealistic." ;
                    flag:G = "Value > 4 s. d. from climo." ;
                    flag:H = "Discontinuity." ;
                    flag:I = "Interesting feature." ;
                    flag:J = "Erroneous." ;
                    flag:K = "Suspect." ;
                    flag:L = "Ocean platform over land." ;
                    flag:M = "Instrument malfunction." ;
                    flag:O = "Multiple original units." ;
                    flag:P = "Movement uncertain." ;
                    flag:Q = "Pre-flagged as suspect" ;
                    flag:R = "Interpolated data." ;
                    flag:S = "Spike." ;
                    flag:T = "Time duplicate." ;
                    flag:Z = "Good data." ;
    
    // global attributes:
                    :title = "Vidal Gormaz: WOCE PR_14_/04" ;
                    :site = "Vidal Gormaz" ;
                    :elevation = 0 ;
                    :ID = "CCVG" ;
                    :platform = "Standard instrument shelter on open bridge" ;
                    :facility = "Chilean Navy" ;
                    :fsu_version = "300" ;
                    :startdate = " 7 OCT 1993" ;
                    :enddate = "17 OCT 1993" ;
                    :EXPOCODE = "20VDPR1493_1" ;
                    :Release_Date = "14 APR 2000" ;
                    :contact_info = "COAPS, Florida State Univ, Tallahassee, FL 32306-2840, U.S.A." ;
                    :contact_email = "wocemet@coaps.fsu.edu" ;
    
    data:
    
     cruise_track_code =
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04",
      "PR_14_/04" ;
    
     woce_date = 19931007, 19931007, 19931007, 19931008, 19931008, 19931008, 
        19931008, 19931009, 19931009, 19931009, 19931009, 19931010, 19931010, 
        19931010, 19931010, 19931011, 19931011, 19931011, 19931011, 19931012, 
        19931012, 19931012, 19931012, 19931013, 19931013, 19931013, 19931013, 
        19931014, 19931014, 19931014, 19931014, 19931015, 19931015, 19931015, 
        19931015, 19931016, 19931016, 19931016, 19931016, 19931017, 19931017, 
        19931017, 19931017 ;
    
     woce_time_of_day = 60000, 120000, 180000, 0, 60000, 120000, 180000, 0, 
        60000, 120000, 180000, 0, 60000, 120000, 180000, 0, 60000, 120000, 
        180000, 0, 60000, 120000, 180000, 0, 60000, 120000, 180000, 0, 60000, 
        120000, 180000, 0, 60000, 120000, 180000, 0, 60000, 120000, 180000, 0, 
        60000, 120000, 180000 ;
    
     time = 7240680, 7241040, 7241400, 7241760, 7242120, 7242480, 7242840, 
        7243200, 7243560, 7243920, 7244280, 7244640, 7245000, 7245360, 7245720, 
        7246080, 7246440, 7246800, 7247160, 7247520, 7247880, 7248240, 7248600, 
        7248960, 7249320, 7249680, 7250040, 7250400, 7250760, 7251120, 7251480, 
        7251840, 7252200, 7252560, 7252920, 7253280, 7253640, 7254000, 7254360, 
        7254720, 7255080, 7255440, 7255800 ;
    
     latitude = -37.9, -38, -37.9, -37.9, -38, -38, -38, -38, -38, -37.9, -38, 
        -38.1, -40, -40.6, -41.7, -42.5, -43.3, -44.1, -44.8, -45.5, -46.2, 
        -46.9, -47.5, -48, -48, -47.9, -47.8, -47.7, -48, -47.9, -48, -47.9, 
        -46.9, -45.8, -44.9, -43.9, -42.9, -41.6, -40.9, -39.9, -38.7, -37.6, 
        -36.7 ;
    
     longitude = -74.1, -74.7, -74.8, -75.6, -76.6, -77.5, -78.4, -79.6, -80.6, 
        -81.6, -82.2, -82.2, -82.2, -82.2, -82.2, -82.2, -82.2, -82.2, -82.3, 
        -82.3, -82.2, -82.2, -82.2, -81.9, -80.7, -79.5, -79.3, -79.3, -79.2, 
        -78.1, -77, -76.1, -76.2, -76, -75.9, -75.7, -75.4, -75, -74.9, -74.5, 
        -74.2, -73.9, -73.3 ;
    
     PL_CRS = 229, 270, 269, 238, 270, 269, 260, 271, 269, 270, 270, 180, 180, 
        180, 185, 182, 180, 180, 190, 190, 210, 235, 145, 95, 35, 60, 340, 335, 
        330, 90, 0, 345, 8, 3, 12, 15, 12, 20, 12, 16, 12, 15, 50 ;
    
     PL_SPD = 0.8, 5.1, 5.7, 1, 5.7, 5.7, 5.7, 5.7, 5.7, 5.7, 0.5, 5.7, 5.7, 5.7, 
        5.7, 6.2, 6.2, 5.1, 5.1, 4.6, 5.1, 4.1, 4.6, 6.2, 6.2, 5, 1, 1, 0, 5.1, 
        1, 3.8, 5.1, 5.1, 5.1, 5.7, 5.7, 5.9, 6.2, 6.2, 5.7, 5.7, 5.7 ;
    
     DIR = 180, 190, 190, 190, 190, 190, 190, 180, 190, 270, 210, 190, 290, 320, 
        300, 330, 320, 270, 260, 310, 310, 320, 310, 300, 360, 350, 350, 300, 
        330, 150, 350, 320, 240, 160, 120, 350, 180, 240, 250, 280, 330, 0, 340 ;
    
     SPD = 7, 10, 7, 10, 8, 7, 5, 6, 3, 5, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 12, 12, 8, 12, 9, 9, 
        11, 10, 10, 11, 12, 20, 15, 6, 11, 14, 18, 7, 7, 3, 6, 7, 9, 7, 9, 10, 9, 9 ;
    
     P = 1015.8, 1018, 1019.8, 1021, 1020, 1022.5, 1022, 1022, 1022.5, 1023, 
        1023.5, 1023, 1024, 1022, 1020.5, 1016.5, 1014.2, 1014.6, 1015, 1016, 
        1015, 1011.5, 1007, 1002, 999, 995, 992.5, 994.5, 998, 993, 989, 995, 
        998.5, 996.2, 992.8, 998.5, 1000, 1006.5, 1011, 1012, 1013, 1014.2, 1016 ;
    
     T = 12.5, 13, 14, 13.5, 12, 14, 16.5, 12.5, 13, 13, 14.5, 16.5, 12, 12, 14, 
        12, 10.5, 10, 11.5, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 9, 10.5, 10.5, 9.5, 8.5, 6, 11, 7.5, 
        9, 8.4, 9.5, 11, 10.5, 10.5, 11.5, 12, 11.5, 10, 13.5 ;
    
     TS = 13.3, 13.3, 13.3, 13.3, 13.3, 14, 12.8, 13.3, 13.4, 13.9, 14, 14, 13.3, 
        12.2, 11.7, 11.7, 10.6, 10.6, 10.6, 9, 9, 8.9, 9, 8.9, 8.9, 9, 8.9, 8.9, 
        7.8, 7.6, 9.4, 10.6, 9, 10.6, 10, 9.8, 11.7, 10, 12.8, 12.8, 12.8, 12.8, 
        12.2 ;
    
     TD = 10, 11, 12, 9, 8, 9, 9, 7, 7, 10, 10, 10, 10, 9, 13, 10, 10, 8, 9, 8, 
        7, 8, 5, 5, 8, 9, 9, 6, 7, 0, 9, 7, 5, 1, 4, 9, 7, 9, 10, 7, 11, 2, 12 ;
    
     TW = 11.5, 12, 13, 11, 10, 11, 12.5, 10, 10, 11.5, 12, 13, 11, 10.5, 13.5, 
        11, 10, 9, 9.5, 7.5, 8, 7.5, 7, 7, 8.5, 10, 10, 8, 7.5, 6, 11, 7, 7, 6.5, 
        7, 10, 9, 10, 11, 9.5, 11, 9, 13 ;
    
     WX = 3, 3, 2, 2, 2, 3, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 1, 1, 0, 3, 2, 80, 2, 3, 3, 1, 3, 3, 
        3, 3, 14, 14, -9999, 25, 25, 25, 1, 1, 3, 3, 3, 3, 25, 25, 3, 23, 3, 1 ;
    
     TCA = 1, 8, 8, 8, 4, 7, 8, 5, 3, 8, 6, 1, 1, 0, 5, 7, 6, 5, 8, 7, 0, 9, 8, 
        8, 9, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 7, 2, 8, 7, 8, 8, 8, 5, 5, 5, 7, 7 ;
    
     LMCA = 0, 8, 8, 8, 4, 7, 8, 5, 3, 8, 6, 1, 1, 0, 5, 7, 6, 5, 8, 7, 0, 8, 8, 
        8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 7, 2, 8, 7, 8, 8, 8, 5, 5, 5, 7, 7 ;
    
     ZCL = 9, 1, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 4, 4, 5, 4, 4, 9, 5, 6, 3, 4, 2, 2, 10, 2, 5, 
        4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 3, 3, 5, 4, 4, 5 ;
    
     LCT = 0, 4, 3, 3, 1, 2, 1, 3, 4, 4, 2, 2, 2, 0, 3, 4, 4, 8, 1, 1, 0, 7, 4, 
        8, 10, 7, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 6, 7, 4, 4, 4, 6, 6, 4, 4, 1, 1 ;
    
     MCT = 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 0, 10, 10, 0, 8, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 10, 10, 0, 0, 
        0, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 0, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 
        10, 10, 10, 3 ;
    
     HCT = 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 0, 10, 10, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 6, 10, 10, 0, 0, 
        0, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 10, 
        10, 10, 10, 10, 2 ;
    
     flag =
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZKZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZKZDD",
      "ZZZZZZZZKZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZKZDD",
      "ZZZZZZZZKZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZKZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZKZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZIZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZKZZK",
      "ZZZZZZZIKZZK",
      "ZZZZZZIZKZZK",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ",
      "ZZZZZZKZZZSZ",
      "ZZZZZZZZZZZZ" ;
    }
    



    Appendix 3

    The following links are subroutines that can be used to convert the time values from the WOCE netCDF files to four-digit year, month, day, hour, and minute values (Invtime) and from four-digit year, month, day, hour, and minute values to the time values on the WOCE netCDF files (Convtime). The routine processes individual time values (time stamp), but could be easily modified to handle an entire time array. They are available in FORTRAN, IDL, and C.

    FORTRAN
    invtime.f
    convtime.f

    IDL
    invtime.pro
    convtime.pro

    C
    invtime.c
    convtime.c

    The Invtime codes can be acquired electronically from our ftp site via the following commands:

    ftp wocemet.fsu.edu
    login anonymous
    cd pub/src
    get (invtime.f, invtime.pro, invtime.c)

    Any problems that occur while using the code can be addressed to wocemet@coaps.fsu.edu.

    Contact: Webmaster
    Copyright © 2001 COAPS